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Tuesday, September 30, 2014

Ra Ra o La La ̶ Watta consonant!

Before you write your consonants, sing this Baybayin lyric a la Lady Gaga. Why? Well, to help you relax a bit and enjoy what you are doing with the 14 consonants of the celebrated preFilipino script. :)

Ra Ra o La La
Fa Fa o Pa Pa
Ja Ja o Sa Sa
Watta consonant!

Da Da o Ra Ra
Fa Fa o Pa Ha
Za Za o Sa Sa
Watta consonant!

Consider reading each consonant with a prefixed vowel /"A"/... [/Ba/, /Ka/, /Da/, /Ga/, /Ha/, /La/, /Ma/, /Na/, /Nga/, /Pa/, /Sa/, /Ta/, /Wa/, /Ya/]. Another thing, realize the history of its transcription. What do I mean by that?

First, notice the missing /Ra/. Some copyists in the old days thought that /Ra/ had always been a substitute for /Da/ or /La/ and vice versa. For example, /madunong/ became /ma•ru•nong/; /aramid/ became /a•la•mid/; /gracia/ became /ga•la•sia/ etc.

Some, however, utilized Marcilla's /Ra/.


Read this Baybayin example for America:



Is that an innovation? Probably. If Filipinos had already used Marcilla's /Ra/, why change it again and use Nordenx's /Ra/? Whatever their reason, be it modernized or modified, /Ra/ still had its place in Baybayin history.

What about the Spanish "Ñ"? Did the copyists neglect its /en•ye/ syllables? Nope. It became a diagraph in Pavon's manuscript. He combined two characters [/Nga/ and /Ha/] for "Ñ" or /nya/.


This is baybayinized España:    

The same thing goes with /Fa/. It became a diagraph of /Pa/ and /Ha/:


Here's baybayinized Filipinas:



Most of the existing Baybayin transcriptions 1,000 years ago were done by Jesuits. They devoted themselves to the study of the preFilipino characters they called Tagalog alphabet. But, did their Tagalog characters differ from each other? YES!    

Ignacio Villamor, the first Filipino president of the University of the Philippines (1915), noticed that when Fr. Lopez wrote his own set of Tagalog characters [28 years after Fr. Blancas] they had slight differences. Villamor, however, still considered the reformed Baybayin of Lopez as the standard in his book La Antigua escritura Filipina

The other Baybayin consonant-vowel characters had their stories as well. Did you know that the famous Jesuit-transcribed Tagalog alphabet differs from the Katipunan's set of characters?

Hermenegildo Cruz presented the Abakada (alfabeto) ng Katipunan this way:

Abakada ng Katipunan


Now, would the Katipunan changes make the Jesuit Lopez-transcribed Baybayin glyphs appear like this?

Abakada KKK

The Katipuneros had expressed their nationalist ideals by encoding and decoding them with their own set of Tagalog characters. Their reason for it is preserved in Kartilyang Makabayan.

So what's the first true Tagalog alphabet now?

Ra Ra o La La
Fa Fa o Pa Pa
Ja Ja o Sa Sa
Watta consonant!

Da Da o Ra Ra
Fa Fa o Pa Ha
Za Za o Sa Sa
Watta consonant!

Sunday, September 28, 2014

Kudlit Bulilit [Small Diacritic, Small Virama]

Kudlit Chart
© Tim Liwanag

kudlit [corlit, cudlit, kudlis, gurlit, tik]

  • isang linya, guhit, o marka
    [a line, stroke, or mark (Gardner, 1869)]
  • isang maliit na marka mula sa kahit anong hugis: tuldok /./, singsing //, gitling /-/, panipi /'/, chevron /v/, breve / ̆ /, arko / ̑ /, krus /+/ o sinawali /x/, pamudpud /յ /, kawil /π/, tutuldok /:/ at gatatsulok na tutuldok /ː/, atbp.
  • [a small mark of any shape: dot /./, ring /◦/, dash /-/, prime /'/, chevron /v/, breve / ̆ /, arch / ̑ /, cross /+/ or sinawali /x/, pamudpud /յ /, kawil /π/, colon /:/ and triangular colon /ː/], etc.

Kapansin-pansin
[noteworthy]

  • ang tuldok /./, singsing //, gitling /-/, panipi /'/ atbp. sa itaas ng baybayin karakter (konsonante-bokalbo) ay lumilikha ng tunog na "E" o "I"
  • [a dot /./, ring /◦/, dash /-/, prime /'/ etc. over a baybayin character (consonant-vowel) creates an "E" or "I" sound]
  • ang tuldok /./, singsing //, gitling /-/, prime /'/ atbp. sa ilalim ng baybayin karakter (konsonante-bokalbo) ay lumilikha ng tunog na "O" o "U"
  • [a dot /./, ring /◦/, dash /-/, prime /'/ etc. under a baybayin character (consonant-vowel) creates an "O" or "U" sound]
  • ang krus /+/ o sinawali /x/, bawas /-/, pamudpud /յ /, kawil /π/ ay kumakansela sa tunog ng bokalbo o patinig 
  • [a cross /+/ or sinawali /x/, minus /-/, pamudpud /յ /, kawil /π/ cancels the vowel sound]
  • ang doble tuldok /../, tutuldok /:/, gatatsulok na tutuldok /ː/, doble gitling /--/,  at doble panipi / ''/ ay para sa pag-uulit ng baybayin karakter (bokalbo o konsonante-bokalbo)
  • [a double dot/../, colon /:/, triangular colon /ː/, double dash /--/, and double prime / ''/ are for the reduplication of a baybayin character (a vowel or a consonant-vowel)]

Friday, September 26, 2014

Salawikain [Proverbs]

Pinakadakila sa lahat ang pagmamahal.
["The greatest of all is love."]

Filipino PC* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Pedro Chirino glyphs]

Sunday, September 21, 2014

Senyas Baybayin ̶ A Baybayin Sign Language

Senyas Baybayin  ̶  A Baybayin Sign Language by Tim Liwanag

Senyas TL* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Tim Liwanag's Baybayin glyphs]
[Senyas is the Tagalog word for 'sign' or 'signal']


Ang lengguwaheng senyas ay pakikipag-usap sa pamamagitan ng mga paggalaw ng mga kamay sa halip nang binigkas na mga salita.
[Sign language is a communication via hand movements instead of spoken words.]

Kung inyong ikinatuwa ang Sulat Baybayin, inaanyayahan namin kayo na pagningasin din ito sa pamamagitan ng mga Senyas Baybayin.
 [If you enjoyed Baybayin Script, we invite you to enkindle it too by means of Baybayin Signals.]

Senyas Baybayin  ̶  A Baybayin Sign Language by Tim Liwanag


Tagubilin:
[Instructions:]

Kopyahin ang mga karater gamit ang inyong kanang kamay. Gamitin ang inyong kaliwang kamay para sa mga kudlit.
[Imitate the characters using your right hand. Use your left hand for the diacritics.]

1. Isang kudlit o tik na gitling o tuldok sa itaas ng baybayin konsonante-bokalbo karakter ay lumilikha ng tunog na /"E"/ o /"I"/.
[A diacritic or tick dash or dot over a baybayin consonant-vowel character creates an /"E"/ or /"I"/ sound.]

2. Isang kudlit o tik na gitling o tuldok sa ilalim ng baybayin konsonante-bokalbo ay lumilikha ng tunog na /"O"/ o /"U"/.
[A diacritic or tick dash or dot under a baybayin consonant-vowel character creates an /"O"/ or /"U"/ sound.]

3. Isang krus kudlit o x-kudlit sa ilalim ng baybayin konsonante-bokalbo ay kumakansela sa tunog ng bokalbo o patinig.
[A cross-shaped virama or x-virama under a baybayin consonant-vowel character cancels the vowel sound.]

4. Gamitin ang senyas na kudlit ng dalawang beses para sa pag-ulit ng isang karakter.
[Use the diacritic sign twice for the repetition of a character.]

5. Para sa pag-ulit ng isang baybayin konsonante-bokalbo na may /"A"/, gamitin ang senyas kapayapaan o ang "v" senyas daliri at pagkatapos iligay ito sa ilalim ng karakter na ipinapakita ng inyong kanang kamay.
[For the repetition of a baybayin consonant-vowel with an /"A"/, use the peace sign or "v" finger sign and then place it under the character being shown by your right hand.]

Ang Senyas TL typeface at ang mga Senyas Baybayin ay mga likha ng inyong lingkod na edublogger na si Tim Liwanag.
[The Senyas TL typeface and the Baybayin Signals are creations of your servant edublogger Tim Liwanag]

Ito ba ang unang Pilipino na lengguwaheng senyas na Baybayin?
[Is this the first Filipino Baybayin sign language?]

Saturday, September 20, 2014

Habilog Mod [Wingdings]


Habilog Mod* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Baybayin modern glyphs]
[Habilog is the Tagalog word for 'creation']

Salawikain [Proverbs]

Magalak sa katotohanan.
["Rejoice in the truth."]


Istoriko FSJ* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Francisco San Joseph glyphs]
[Istoriko is the Tagalog word for 'historic']

Friday, September 19, 2014

Sangkinapal DC [Petroglyphs]


Sangkinapal DC* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Doctrina Cristiana glyphs]
[Sangkinapal is the Tagalog word for 'creation']


Alakdan (scorpion)
Isda (fish)
Ulupong (cobra)
Bayawak (monitor lizard)
Daga (rat)
Gansa (goose)
Halimaw (moster)
Kambing (goat)
Lawin (hawk)
Manok (fowl)
Napu or pilandok (mouse-deer)
Nganib (danger) / [buwaya (crocodile)]
Palaka (frog)
Rabit or kuneho (rabbit)
Salagubang (scarab beetle)
Tarsiyer (Tarsier)
Wakwak (nightjar)
Yabi or ulang (yabby, crayfish)

Salawikain [Proverbs]

Kung ano ang puno ay siya rin ang bunga.
["The tree is known by its fruit."]

Katuturan GT* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Guillermo Tolentino glyphs]
[Katuturan is the Tagalog word for 'significance']

Thursday, September 18, 2014

Salawikain [Proverbs]

Mahalin ang Diyos
["Love God"]

Doktrina TL* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*Tim Liwanag glyphs a la Doctrina Cristiana]
[Doktrina is the Tagalog word for 'doctrine']

Wednesday, September 17, 2014

Salawikain [Proverbs]

Kung ano ang itinanim ay siya rin ang aanihin.
["Whatever you sow, so shall you also reap."]


Katas GSA* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Gaspar de San Agustin glyphs]
[Katas is the Tagalog word for 'extract']

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Tinik DC


Tinik DC* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Doctrina Cristiana glyphs]
[Tinik is the Tagalog word for 'thorn']


Kudlits are from Bayani Mendoza de Leon's manual*:
dot (.)
dash (-)
prime (')
backslash (\)

[*Baybayin The Ancient Script of the Philippines]

Tinik TL


Tinik TL* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Tim Liwanag glyphs]
[Tinik is the Tagalog word for 'thorn']


Kudlits are from Bayani Mendoza de Leon's manual*:
dot (.)
dash (-)
prime (')
backslash (\)

[*Baybayin The Ancient Script of the Philippines]

Malaya BM

Baybayin Bayani Mendoza de Leon

Malaya BM* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Bayani Mendoza de Leon glyphs]
[Malaya is the Tagalog word for 'free']

Bahay Kubo

Baybayin Guillermo Tolentino


Katuturan GT* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Guillermo Tolentino glyphs]
[Katuturan is the Tagalog word for 'significance']


Bahay Kubo
[The lyrics of the song from Bureau of Agricultural Research]

Bahay kubo kahit munti, ang halaman doon ay sari-sari,
singkamas at talong, sigarillas at mani, sitaw,
bataw, patani; kondol, patola, upo't kalabasa,
at saka mayroon pa labanos at mustasa;
sibuyas, kamatis, bawang at luya,
sa paligid-ligid ay puro linga.

[noteworthy]

I added /Ra/ to Guillermo Tolentino's Baybayin Tagalog. About the kudlits, GT used an "overdot " [a dot above a consonant-vowel character] to create an /"E"/ or /"I"/ sound while an "underdot" [a dot below a consonant-vowel character] gives an /"O"/ or /"U"/ sound. What's interesting here is GT's "minus" or "dash" /-/ being utilized as an elision and/or as a vowel-killer for trailing consonants.

Katuturan GT

Baybayin Guillermo Tolentino

Katuturan GT* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Guillermo Tolentino glyphs]
[Katuturan is the Tagalog word for 'significance']

Nasyonalidad PC

Baybayin Pedro Chirino


Nasyonalidad PC* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Pedro Chirino glyphs]
[Nasyonalidad is the Tagalog word for 'nationality']

Filipino PC

Baybayin Pedro Chirino

Filipino PC* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Pedro Chirino glyphs]
[Pedro Chirino coined the term 'Filipino' (a native of the Philippines)]

Monday, September 15, 2014

Katutubo FL

Baybayin Francisco Lopez

Katutubo FL* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Francisco Lopez glyphs]
[Katutubo is the Tagalog word for 'indigenous']

Istoriko FSJ

Baybayin Francisco San Joseph


Istoriko FSJ* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Francisco San Joseph glyphs]
[Istoriko is the Tagalog word for 'historic']

Palaso DC [Wingdings]


Palaso DC* typefaces © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Doctrina Cristiana glyphs]
[Palaso is the Tagalog word for 'arrow']


Kudlits suggested by me are:

dash (-)____________ for vowel E
overdot (◌̇)_________ for vowel I
underring ()________ for vowel O
underchevron (v)____ for vowel U
triangular colon (ː)___ for repetition
cross (+)___________ for cancelling vowel sound

The Lord's Prayer



Transcription Text by Paul Morrow

Amá namin || nasa langit ka || ipasambá

mo || ang ngalan mo, || mowî (mauwî) sa amin || ang

pagkaharì mo || ipasunód mo || ang loób mo ||

dito sa lupà || parang sa langit, || bigyán mo kamí ||

ngayón || nang aming kakanín || para nang sa araw-araw ||

At pakawalín mo || ang aming kasalanan, || yayang (yamang)

winawaláng-bahalà namin sa loób || ang kasalanan ||

nang nagkasasala || sa amin || Huwág mo kamí iwan || nang

dî kamí matalo nang tuksó || Dátapuwá't || iad-

yá mo kamí || sa diláng masamâ || Amén Sesús (Jesús) ||

Kotiledon TL

Baybayin Tim Liwanag

Kotiledon TL* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*Tim Liwanag glyphs a la Doctrina Cristiana]
[Kotiledon is the Tagalog word for 'cotyledon']

Salawikain [Proverbs]

Ang katotohanan ang magpapalaya sa inyo.
["The truth shall set you free."]

Doktrina TL* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*Tim Liwanag glyphs a la Doctrina Cristiana]
[Doktrina is the Tagalog word for 'doctrine']

Doktrina TL

Baybayin Tim Liwanag


Doktrina TL* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*Tim Liwanag glyphs a la Doctrina Cristiana]
[Doktrina is the Tagalog word for 'doctrine']

Katas GSA

Baybayin Gaspar de San Agustin


Katas GSA* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Gaspar de San Agustin glyphs]
[Katas is the Tagalog word for 'extract']

Doktrina JDP

Baybayin Juan de Plasencia

Doktrina JDP* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Doctrina Cristiana, Juan de Plasencia glyphs]
[Doktrina is the Tagalog word for 'doctrine']

Filipinas DC


Filipinas DC* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Doctrina Cristiana glyphs]


Kudlits suggested by me are:

dash (-)____________ for vowel E
overdot (◌̇)_________ for vowel I
underring ()________ for vowel O
underchevron (v)____ for vowel U
triangular colon (ː)___ for repetition
star/asterisk (*)___________ for cancelling vowel sound

Sisidlan CP

Baybayin Calatagan Pot


Sisidlan CP* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Calatagan Pot glyphs]
[Sisidlan is the Tagalog word for 'container']

Bayani JR

Baybayin Jose Rizal

Bayani JR* typeface © Tim Liwanag
[*based from Jose Rizal glyphs]
[Bayani is the Tagalog word for 'hero']

Baybayin Chart



Baybayin typefaces © Tim Liwanag


CP..........Calatagan Pot
JR...........Jose Rizal
FSJ.........Francisco San Joseph
JDP.........Juan de Plasencia
AV............Abbe Favre
PC..........Pedro Chirino
GSA.......Gaspar de San Agustin
FL...........Francisco Lopez
GT..........Guilermo Tolentino

BAYBAYIN FOUNDRY

Baybayin Foundry by Tim Liwanag